We would like to thank the Cole foundation and Howard Hughes Medical Institute for grants to Carleton College which funded our research during the summer of 1997, Charles Umbanhower Jr. for the use of his imaging equipment during the summer of 1997, Phil Claussen, curator of the University of Minnesota's insect collection, Maurine and Ananda Neiman for assistance while collecting, Sean Fox for being patient with updates of these web pages, and Carleton College's Biology Department for the use of imaging equipment, facilities, and disk space.

     We would especially like to thank James Trager for identifying several of our specimens (particularly Formica incerta and F. nitidiventris) and for helping us greatly improve our understanding of ant taxonomy, and Mark McKone for enthusiastic support, for the use of lab space for three summers, and for heading the biodiversity survey of the Carleton College's Cowling Arboretum.

     Images were taken using NIH Image and Adope Photoshop 4.0 & 6.0 (registered to Carleton College)

Please send any questions or comments regarding these pages to Tim Linksvayer (
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